We examined effects of non-native earthworms on fungi, microarthropods, and songbirds.
We found no effect of earthworms on colonization of white spruce roots by ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Abundance of microarthropods was 50% lower when earthworms were present versus when they were absent.
American robins occurred twice as often at locations with non-native earthworms present versus locations without earthworms, likely due to robins’ use of earthworms as prey.} ?>